Our research and publications


We are committed to contributing to the research literature on stuttering, to published professional discussion papers and to resources for parents, teachers and clients. You will find our publications listed here, grouped according to topic. Some of these publications have been written with the support of Action for Stammering Children.

Parent Child Interaction Therapy
• Kelman, E., & Nicholas, A. (2020) Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Early Childhood Stammering. Routledge
• Millard, S.K., Zebrowksi, P., & Kelman, E. (2018). Palin Parent Child Interaction Therapy: The bigger picture. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 2, 1211-1223.
• Millard, S.K., Edwards, S., & Cook, F. (2009). Parent-child interaction therapy: Adding to the evidence. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 11(1), 61 – 76.
• Millard, S.K., Nicholas A., & Cook F.M. (2008). Is parent-child interaction therapy effective in reducing stuttering? Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 51(3), 636-650.
• Preston, Clark, Halpin & Millard (2022) Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders, 97,
• Franken, M.C., Millard, S.K. & Hearne, A. (2022). Working with young children who stutter. In Zebrowski, P., Anderson, J. and Conture, E. Stuttering and Related Disorders of Fluency (4th Edition). Thieme
Stammering Therapy for School aged Children
• Millard, S. K., Murphy, S., Barton, G., Leathersich, M., Mills, G., Rixon, L., … & Joffe, V. (2022). Evaluating Palin Stammering Therapy for School Children (Palin STSC 8–14): protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing Palin STSC (8–14) with usual treatment. Pilot and feasibility studies, 8(1), 1-14.
• Eggers, K., Millard, S. K., & Yaruss, J. S. (2022). Considering Commonalities in Stuttering Therapy. In Eggers & Leahy (Eds). Clinical Cases in Dysfluency, (pp21-31). Routledge.
• Caughter, S., Kelman, E., & Delpeche, S. (2022). A Multidimensional Approach for School-Aged Children who Stutter. In Seminars in Speech and Language (Vol. 43, No. 02, pp. 067-081).
• Kelman, E, Berquez, A., & Caughter, S. (2022) Cognitive Approaches with Children who Stutter and their Parents. In M Leahy & K Eggers (Eds.) Clinical Cases in Dysfluency (pp55-64). Routledge
• Millard, S. K., Murphy, S., Barton, G., Lethersich, M., Rixon, L., Shepstone, L., … & Joffe, V. (2021). Evaluating Palin Stammering Therapy for School Children (Palin STSC 8-14): Protocol for a Feasibility Randomised Control Trial Comparing Palin STSC (8-14) with Usual Treatment. Preprint retrieved from: https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1144678/v1/6ab88b53-3710-4848-8198-9f19fbe8cd44.pdf?c=1640734475
• Rogers, N., Berquez, A., Hollister, J., & Zebrowski, P. (2020) Using Solution-Focused Principles with Older Children who Stutter and Their Parents to Elicit Perspectives of Therapeutic Change. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Group.
What influences stammering?
• Eggers, K., Millard, S., & Kelman, E. (2021). Temperament and the Impact of Stuttering in Children Aged 8–14 Years. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(2), 417-432.
• Delpeche, S., Millard, S., & Kelman, E. (2022). The role of temperament in stuttering frequency and impact in children under 7. Journal of Communication Disorders, 97, 106201.
• Eggers, K., Millard, S. K., & Kelman, E. (2022). Temperament, Anxiety, and Depression in School-Age Children Who Stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 106218.
Outcome measures:
• Cooke, K. & Millard, S.K., (2018). The most important therapy outcomes for school-aged children who stutter: An exploratory study. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 27, 1152-1163.
• Brundage, S. B., Ratner, N. B., Boyle, M. P., Eggers, K., Everard, R., Franken, M. C., … & Yaruss, J. S. (2021). Consensus Guidelines for the Assessments of Individuals Who Stutter Across the Lifespan. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 30(6), 2379

Working with young children who stammer

Working with young children who stutter: Raising our game

  • Author(s): Millard, SK & Cook, F.M.
  • Year: 2010
  • Source: Seminars in Speech and Language
  • Volume: 31(4)
  • Pages: 250-261

Parent-child interaction: an alternative approach to the management of children’ language difficulties.

Is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Effective in Reducing Stuttering?

  • Author(s): Millard, S.K., Nicholas, A., & Cook, F.
  • Year: 2008
  • Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
  • Pages: 636-650

Practical Intervention for Early Childhood Stammering: Palin PCI Approach

  • Author(s): Kelman, E., & Nicholas, A.
  • Year: 2008
  • Source: A Speechmark Practical Therapy Resource
  • Publishers: Speechmark Publishing Ltd.
  • Location: Abingdon, UK

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Adding to the evidence

Palin Parent Child Interaction Therapy and the Lidcombe Program: Clarifying Some Issues

Multifactorial treatments for young children who stutter

Palin Parent Child Interaction Therapy: The bigger picture

  • Author(s): Millard, S.K., Zebrowski, P., & Kelman, E.
  • Year: 2018
  • Source: American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology
  • Pages: 1124-1138

Working with school aged children

Working with Young Children Who Stutter: Raising Our Game

Intensive group therapy for children who stutter: Early evidence

What do Children who Stutter and their Parents Expect from Therapy and are their Hopes Aligned?

Anxiety and bullying management for school aged children and adolescents

An exploration of the mechanisms of change following an integrated group intervention for stuttering, as perceived by school-aged children who stutter (CWS)

Nurturing a Resilient Mindset in School-Age Children Who Stutter

Methods in Stuttering Therapy for Desensitising Parents of Children Who Stutter

Therapy with school-aged children who stutter

  • Author(s): Millard, S.K.
  • Year: 2019
  • Source: In D. Tomaiuli (Ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Stuttering (2018)
  • Publishers: Edition Centro Studi Erickson S.p.A.
  • Location: Rome
  • Pages: 143-153

Therapy for teenagers

The effect of an intensive group therapy program for young adults who stutter: A single subject study

Effectiveness of intensive, group therapy for teenagers who stutter

  • Author(s): Fry, J., Millard,S., & Botterill, W.
  • Year: 2014
  • Source: International Journal of Language & Communication Sciences
  • Volume: 49:1
  • Pages: 113-12

Outcome measures

Children’s drawings as a measure of change

  • Author(s): Millard, S.K., & Rustin, L.
  • Year: 2003
  • Source: In K.L. Baker and D. Rowley (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Oxford Dysfluency Conference
  • Publishers: York Publishing Press
  • Location: York
  • Pages: 99-112

The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents’ perspectives of childhood stuttering and its impact

Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and stammering

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with children who stutter

Bridging the gap between cognitive therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)

  • Author(s): Harley, J.
  • Year: 2015
  • Source: Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences
  • Volume: 193
  • Pages: 131-140

The role of attention in therapy for children and adolescents who stutter: Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based interventions

  • Author(s): Harley, J.
  • Year: 2018
  • Source: American Journal of speech-language pathology
  • Volume: 27
  • Pages: 1139 - 1151

Therapy within a CBT framework: A reflective conversation

  • Author(s): Fry, J.
  • Year: 2013
  • Source: In Cheasman, C., Everard, R., & Simpson, S. (Eds.). Stammering Therapy from the Inside - New Perspectives on Working with Young People and Adults
  • Publishers: J&R Press
  • Location: Croydon
  • Pages: 303-338

The role of parents in stuttering treatment from a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy perspective

  • Author(s): Biggart, A., Cook, F. & Fry, J.
  • Year: 2006
  • Source: Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Fluency Disorders, Dublin, Ireland, 25–28th July, 2006

On-line therapy

Understanding stammering or stuttering: a guide for parents, teachers and other professionals

  • Author(s): man, E. & Whyte, A.
  • Year: 2012
  • Publishers: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Mothers’ Perspectives of a Webcam Service for Children who Stammer

  • Author(s): Clarke, G., Millard, S., & Kelman, E.
  • Year: 2015
  • Source: Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences
  • Volume: 193
  • Pages: 298-299
Our research and publications

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